> d 7.04.99
> By Johan Galtung, dr hc mult, Professor of Peace Studies
> Director, TRANSCEND: A Peace and Development Network
> > Arguments in favor of conflict intervention: the conflict
> parties are unable to transform the conflict so as to avoid
> violence; unable to keep violence under control; unable to
> handle post-violence resolution/reconstruction/reconciliation.
> > Arguments against conflict intervention: the conflict and
> any solution is the joint property of the conflict parties;
> outside parties will never understand the uniqueness of the
> conflict; outside parties also enter with their own agendas.
> > As there is truth to all these arguments, the general
> principle would be to proceed with care, which might be
> interpreted, as a minimum, to mean:
> >  Reversibility: you have a right to propose and act, but only
> that which can be undone: you may be wrong. Hence, no or minimal
> violence; UN Chapter 6 (Sun Tsu), not Chapter 7 (Clausewitz).
> >  Reciprocity: only engage in conflict intervention, peace-
> making, peace-keeping, peace-building if you are sure that you
> yourself are willing to be intervened, peace-made, peace-kept,
> peace-built by others, letting that question inform your action.
> >  Universality, but with care: do not always do unto others
> what you would like them to do unto you, their tastes may be
> different. Even if electoral democracy and individualist human
> rights are good for you, they may not be to others.
> >  Empathy with the Others, obtained through deep dialogues. Be
> sure you are able to identify what drives the Other parties the
> way they agree with, not necessarily the way you agree with.
> >  Empathy with the Self, obtained through inner dialogues
> (meditation). Be sure you are able to identify the driving
> forces in yourself, beyond helping the parties to transform the
> conflict and to undo damage, in a creative and nonviolent way.
>  DPT Consistency: be sure that you know what the problem is
> before you suggest a solution, in order not always to suggest
> your panacea solution out of old habit. Be willing to have
> dialogues with all parties about diagnosis-prognosis-therapy.
> >  Encourage intervention by the Other: organize dialogues
> about their situation by the conflict parties themselves.
> >  Seek participation: do not fall for the temptation to seek
> solutions as seen by leaders only, search for a broader basis.
> >  Seek acceptability: meaning an outcome not agreed to for
> fear of punishment or desire of reward (stick and carrot
> incentives), but because the outcome comes through as right.
> >  Seek sustainability, meaning an outcome that does not have
> to be propped up artificially from the outside but generates its
> own support by speaking to the conditions of all parties.